at the base with little or no moons, they are infallible signs of weak action of the heart. Large moons, if present, indicate good circulation. Short and triangular-shaped nails, besides being flat and thin, denote a tendency to paralysis.

Short nails, flat and inclined to curve out at the edges, also foretell paralysis.

Nails with spots denote a highly-strung nervous temperament. White spots are a sign of general delicacy. Thin nails of small size show lack of energy and ill health. If narrow and long with curves, spinal trouble is imminent.

Nails to be perfect should be transparent, pink, polished, not brittle, and of normal length. The possessor is a person of good spirits, refinement, healthy, natural tastes, and plenty of tact.

When a deep furrow is found across the nail, it is a mark that a severe illness has impaired the nervous system. The date and time of this illness and strain can be found as follows: if found at the base, one month; if seen about the centre, four to five months; if on the edge or outer edge, nine months. Fluted nails indicate a weakness of the nervous system.

Marks on the Nails. Black spots show grief, sorrow, and sadness. A starshaped white mart shows a useless worship of things and people, unrequited love, or deception. A white mark on the thumb nail shows attachment. A black spot denotes crime. A white spot on the nail of the Jupiter finger shows gain, and a black spot denotes loss. A white spot on the nail of the middle finger foretells a journey, and a black spot denotes impending ruin. A white spot on trie nail of the third finger indicates nonour and wealth, but a black spot dishonour. A white spot on the nail of the fourth finger indicates success in science and business ventures; but a black spot indicates failure. If one has yellow marks on the nails, this is taken as a sign of premature death.

Disposition and Nails. Longnailed people are less critical and more impressionable than those with short nails. They have a more equaole temper, and a gentler disposition. They have more resignation, idealism and a taste for literature, poetry, painting, and the fine arts. They are inclined to be visionaries.

Short-nailed persons, on the other hand, are critical, and are apt to andlyse everything they come across. They are logical-minded, and rely on facts. Their brain is more active. They are good debaters, and have a livelier sense of humour than those with long nails. Their temper is, however, quick and sharp. When the nails are broader than they are long, they indicate a quarrelsome nature, tending to meddle in other people's affairs.

If a person bites his nails habitually, he is of a nervous and worrying temperament.

Nails and Temper. Self-control and cheerfulness can be read from the mounts.

Anger as Indicated by Nails. Anger, flaring up from passion, is shown by the size and shape of the nans. The wider and shorter the nails, the more anger is felt; the longer and larger the nails, the less anger is felt.

The colour of the nails denotes that anger which is derived from the nerves. The pinker the nails, the more; the whiter, the less. This can be improved, if cured, as it is the result of bad digestion or nerves. A good colour indicates health.

Cheerfulness. If the mount of Mercury is prominent, it gives a person cheerfulness and hope. He does not easily become discouraged and despondent. This should be read in conjuno tion with the characteristics of the nails.

Self-control. The upper mount of Mars under Mercury, situated between the lines of Heart and Head, if well-developed and flat, endows its possessor with self-control and a spirit of resignation and resistance of evil. The student is advised to examine this part of the hand to estimate the degree of self-control. It may be stated that the harder and higher the mount, the greater the control of temper; the longer and softer, the less. Tne phalanges of the thumb and their shape should also be examined.

Vindictiveness. Long-nailed people are quiet-tempered. They require much provocation to rouse them to ^passion; and, if they are, their feelings generally find expression in sarcasm or quiet revenge.


The Chinese and Hindus have always been believers in the astrological aspect of hand-reading. The Chinese have a system of reading and divination by a study of the impression left by the ball of the thumb pressed on a lump of soft wax. No two thumbs are absolutely alike and, in the same way, no two hands can be found whose shape and lines are identical. "The higher animal," says D'Arpentigny, "'is revealed in the hand, but the man is in the thumb."

The importance of the thumb in relation to the science of hand-reading has been accepted on all hands. A thumb may be of any one of the following varieties: stiff, or firm-jointed; flexible or supple; composite; small; large; low-set; high set. These are types classified according to shape. A further classification is also possible when the first two phalanges and their shape are considered,

Stiff thumb. There are people who possess a thumb, which bends back only slightly. This connotes strong will, caution and wariness, secretiveness, steadiness and slow advance towards the objective. The possessor of such a type has rich, commonsense and self-control. In war he is strong and irresistible; in love, firm and dogged, but not given to display. If the thumb is extremely stiff and will not bend back at all, a grasping and avaricious nature is denoted.

Supple thumb. This bends back easily and shows extravagance in everything, money matters, ideas, plans and adaptability to all circumstances. The possessor of such a thumb is a born spendthrift, quite at home in every kind of social setting.

Composite type. This is a combination of the preceding two. The top joint is rather thick, showing will-power and determination. It bends back a bit. These people can be resolute as well as impulsive. They are likely to feel awkward some-tin) es, as they are "impulsively determined" (Jaquin).

Small thumb. A thumb may be small, denoting weak character and emotion, lack of drive and determination. The possessor is guided by his heart and sentiments, and is easily influenced. He is romantic and is passionately fond of fiction. He appreciates the beautiful and sentimental. The thumb of the French king, Louis XVI, belonged to this type; it will be recalled that he was beheaded in the Revolution.

Large thumb. These have been found on the hands of men of outstanding character, who were ruled by the head rather than the heart. Count St. Germain says that Galileo, Descartes, Newton, Leibnitz and Voltaire had large thumbs. The thumbs of Napoleon and Gladstone were large.

Low-set thumb. This is one with a wide gap from the base of the Jupiter finger to the inner root of the thumb. It denotes great general talent and adaptability. But it is not usual for such a subject to possess great literary powers. He has the capacity to adapt the books of others to his own requirements. He is an ideal compiler. When a low-set thumb leaves a large space between itself and the finger of Jupiter, it denotes a nature abounding in humane qualities, such as generosity, independent thought, love of liberty for all, sympathy for all. Thus the low-set thumb is a "philanthropic", humane thumb. It is generally long and large; and, if it is so, it indicates great qualities associated with eminent, strong character. It is rare.

High-set thumb. A monkey's thumb is placed high at the side of the paw; also the thumb of an idiot. Thus we reason that the higher the thumb is placed on the side of the hand, the lower the grade of intelligence and the less the adaptability of the subject. The smaller the thumb and the nearer it approaches to the monkey

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